Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) Rigide et courbé signed with monogram and dated '35' (lower left) oil and sand on canvas 44 7/8 x 63 7/8 in. Pablo Picasso was one of the greatest artists of the 20th century, famous for paintings like ‘Guernica’ and for the art movement known as Cubism. Back in Germany after clashing theoretically with other artists, he taught at the Bauhaus school in Berlin and wrote plays and poems. There, he taught at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture from 1922 until the Nazis closed it in 1933. Executed in Paris, December 1935 In his first treatise, Concerning the Spiritual in Art, he had emphasized in particular the supposed expressiveness of colours, comparing yellow, for example, to the aggressive, allegedly earthly sound of a trumpet and comparing blue to the allegedly heavenly sound of the pipe organ. In Munich, Kandinsky was accepted into a prestigious private painting school, moving on to the Munich Academy of Arts. An obsession with Monet led him to explore his own creative concepts of color on canvas, which were sometimes controversial among his contemporaries and critics, but Kandinsky emerged as a respected leader of the abstract art movement in the early 20th century. In 1896 he settled in Munich and studied first in a private school, then at the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich. In 1921, he returned to Munich, where he taught at the Bauhaus school of architecture, until it was closed by the Nazis in 1933. Between 1914 and 1921 Kandinsky taught art theory at the Institute of Artistic Culture in Moscow - the new controllers of Russian art. He went back to Mos… Kandinsky died of cerebrovascular disease in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, on December 13, 1944. 1910 to 1914 is considered the peak of his artistic career and it was the time when his artworks decisively moved away from representational traditions of Western European art and towards pure abstraction. Periods: Expressionism, German Expressionism, Modern art, Der Blaue Reiter, Abstract art He enrolled at the University of Moscow and chose to study law and economics. Little of the work Kandinsky produced in Russia has survived, although many of the paintings he created in Germany are still extant. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! In 1933, when the Nazis seized power, storm troopers shut down the Bauhaus school. The Blue Rider Period 1910-1914. That Kandinsky was keenly interested in theory during these years is evident from his publication in 1926 of his second important treatise, Punkt und Linie zu Fläche (“Point and Line to Plane”). He was inspired by color and believed he could convey emotions … To the Unknown Voice, 1916 Wassily Kandinsky (16 December [ O.S. In spite of the somewhat routine nature of his work, however, he appears to have found life at the Bauhaus rewarding and pleasant. Post-Impressionist French painter Paul Cézanne is best known for his incredibly varied painting style, which greatly influenced 20th-century abstract art. Marc Chagall was a Belorussian-born French artist whose work generally was based on emotional association rather than traditional pictorial fundamentals. Kandinsky responded to this climate by continuing to evolve in the general direction of geometric abstraction, but with a dynamism and a taste for detail-crowded pictorial space that recall his earlier sweeping-gesture technique. He is credited with painting one of the first recognized purely abstract works. During this period, Kandinsky's creations increased in both intensity and colour, with many of his paintings featuring coloured masses on the canvas without any real shape or form. Although still considered controversial by many, he had earned prominent supporters such as Solomon Guggenheim and continued to exhibit till his death. He called this devotion to inner beauty, These theories coalesced through the first decade of the 20th century, leading him toward his ultimate status as the father of abstract art. He formed friendships and artist groups with other painters of the time, such as Paul Klee. Kandinsky began his career as an artist later in life than most, at around the age of 30. Between 1909 and 1914, when he was developing abstraction, Kandinsky created some 200 paintings and numerous sketches. Not until 1925, when the school moved from Weimar to Dessau, did he have a class in “free,” nonapplied painting. Module 4: Periods in Art History. They had a son together, but the boy lived for only three years and the subject of children became taboo. Quite successful in his profession—he was offered a professorship (chair of Roman Law) at the University of Dorpat—he started painting studies (life-drawing, sketching and anatomy) at the age of 30. Mark Rothko is best known as one of the central figures of the Abstract Expressionist movement in American art in the 1950s and '60s. He once wrote, "Colour directly influences the soul. Artistic scholar Hajo Duechting has divided Kandinsky's artistic development into six periods: He had already formed the New Artists Association in Munich; the Blue Rider group was founded with fellow artist Franz Marc, and he was a member of the Bauhaus movement alongside Klee and composer Arnold Schoenberg. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Find an in-depth biography, exhibitions, original artworks for sale, the latest news, and sold auction prices. Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (Russian: Васи́лий Васи́льевич Канди́нский, tr. This picture was painted by Kandinsky during one of the most fruitful periods of his life – when he was teaching in the Bauhaus. Print; Life Events. While there, the 50-year-old Kandinsky met the decades-younger Nina Andreevskaya, the daughter of a general in the Russian army, and married her. The first period of his artistic career, from approximately 1896 to 1909, is marked by a … Russian-born Wassily Kandinsky was one of the great masters of modern art and an outstanding representative of the pure abstract painting that dominated the first half of the twentieth century. Color became more an expression of emotion rather than a faithful description of nature or subject matter. List of works Featured works (9) All Artworks by Date 1→10 (226) All Artworks by Date 10→1 (226) All Artworks by Name (226) High resolution (1) Styles Abstract Art (139) Abstract Expressionism (1) … When Kandinsky was about 5 years old, his parents divorced, and he moved to Odessa to live with an aunt, where he learned to play the piano and cello in grammar school, as well as study drawing with a coach. It was widely attended, but 57 of his works were confiscated by the Nazis. When the Germans invaded France in 1940, Kandinsky fled to the Pyrenees, but returned to Neuilly afterward, where he lived a rather secluded life, depressed that his paintings weren’t selling. © 2021 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. World War I took Kandinsky back to Russia, where his artistic eye was influenced by the constructivist movement, based on hard lines, dots and geometry. His father was a tea merchant. Russian-born painter Wassily Kandinsky is credited as a leader in avant-garde art as one of the founders of pure abstraction in painting in the early 20th century. Still, Kandinsky married his cousin, Anna Chimyakina, in 1892 and took up a position on the Moscow Faculty of Law, managing an art-printing works on the side. Place of Birth: Moscow Son of Lidia Ticheeva and Vasily Silvestrovich Kandinsky; a tea merchant. Kandinsky's creation of abstract work followed a long period of development and maturation of intense thought based on his artistic experiences. His intricate and dynamic works of art combined colour and spontaneous shapes. Although Kandinsky had achieved German citizenship, World War II made it impossible for him to stay there. He frequently exhibited, taught art classes and published his ideas on theories of art. He had always, however, been interested in teaching, first as a lecturer in law and economics just after getting his university degree, then as the master of a painting school he had organized in Munich, and more recently as a professor at the University of Moscow. The Cologne Lecture – Wassily Kandinsky I can in general characterize the three periods of my development… in the following manner: I remember the first, or (as I called it) dilettante, period as the simultaneous effect of two different impulses. Here are a few of the artist's most famous works: Empor (in Alto), 1900 - This work has an effect of energy rising along a vertical line. The climate was one of research and craftsmanship combined with a certain amount of aesthetic puritanism; it was classical, to use the term rather loosely, by comparison with the warm romanticism of his pre-1914 days in Munich. Wassily Kandinsky - Wassily Kandinsky - Bauhaus period: By this time Kandinsky had an international reputation as a painter. However, Wassily's parents saw him in the future as a lawyer. The couple stayed on in Russia after the revolution, with Kandinsky applying his restless and comprehensive energies to the administration of educational and government-run art programs, helping to create Moscow’s Institute of Artistic Culture and Museum of Pictorial Culture. He called this devotion to inner beauty, fervor of spirit, and spiritual desire inner necessity; it was a central aspect of his art. Vasily Vasilyevich Kandinsky) (16 December [O.S. 16-dic-2014 - Wassily Kandinsky -1866 Russia -1944, France. In the year of 1886 he went to Moscow and entered Law Faculty of Moscow University. An early period work "Munich-Schwabing with the Church of St. Ursula" (Kandinsky 1908) Kandinsky's development of purely abstract work did not arrive as an abrupt change. Many of them have been lost. 4 December] 1866 – 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter and art theorist.. A leading Impressionist painter, Pierre-Auguste Renoir was one of the most famous artists of the early 20th century. Moves to Odessa 1871 - 1885. Claude Monet was a famous French painter whose work gave a name to the art movement Impressionism, which was concerned with capturing light and natural forms. Wassily_Kandinsky_-_Munich-Schwabing_with_the_Church_of_St._Ursula.jpg. Kandinsky chose to abandon his law career and move to Munich (he had learned German from his maternal grandmother as a child) to devote himself full-time to the study of art. Britannica now has a site just for parents. https://www.biography.com/artist/wassily-kandinsky. He was a major figure in modern art and painted some of the first modern abstract works. Wassily Kandinsky. Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa, where he … 4 December] 1866 – 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. Wassily Kandinsky was a very prolific artist. Just like Shakespeare on literature, and Sigmund Freud on psychology, Wassily Kandinsky's impact on abstract art is tremendous. Wassily Kandinsky: List of works - All Artworks by Date 1→10. The folk art there and the spiritual study seemed to stir latent longings. Wassily Kandinsky. He had always, however, been interested in teaching, first as a lecturer in law and economics just after getting his university degree, then as the master of a painting school he had organized in Munich, and more recently as a professor at the University … In Kandinsky's works of his childhood period we can find rather specific color combinations, which he explained by the fact that "each color lives by its mysterious life". By this time Kandinsky had an international reputation as a painter. Search for: Video: Wassily Kandinsky, Composition VII, 1913, Abstract Expressionism. Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) Rampant signed with monogram and dated '34' (lower left) watercolor, brush and pen and India ink on paper laid down on board 20¾ x 11¼ in. Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: ... For discussions of Kandinsky's artistic periods and development, refer to Wikipedia and Guggenheim.org. A trained musician, Kandinsky approached color with a musician’s sensibility. Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa. Wassily Kandinsky: Influence on Art. Kandinsky was among the most important leaders of the abstract art movement of early twentieth century and he is considered a pioneer in non-figurative painting. (52.7 x 28.6 cm.) Wassily Kandinsky was born on December 4, 1866, in Moscow, Russia. Although he later wrote, "I remember that drawing and a little bit later painting lifted me out of the reality," he followed his family’s wishes to go into law, entering the University of Moscow in 1886. When he was five years old the family moved to Odessa, Russia. Birth December 16, 1866. Though he came late to art—at age thirty—Kandinsky became highly respected for his work, theories, and teaching. An early champion of abstract painting, Wassily Kandinsky is known for his lyrical style and innovative theories on nonfigurative art. The arrow-like base supports half-circles of delicate colors. Kandinsky was an active animator of the avant-garde movement in Munich, helping to found in 1909 the New Artists’ Association (Neue Künstlervereinigung). Executed in October 1934 For more about the contribution of Wassily Kandinsky to expressionism, see: History of Expressionist Painting (c.1880-1930). Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) was a Russian painter who visualised musical compositions with abstract forms and colours. He seems not to have hesitated, therefore, when early in 1922 he was offered a teaching post at Weimar in the already famous Bauhaus school of architecture and applied art. The New York auction houses continue to do him proud today — in recent years, his artwork has sold for well over $20 million. They traveled extensively, settling in Bavaria before the outbreak of World War I. French artist Henri Rousseau was a self-taught painter, influencing the Parisian avant-garde movement. He lectured on the elements of form, gave a course in colour, and directed the mural workshop. He enrolled at the Academy of Fine Arts, or the Kunstakademie, in 1900. One of the pioneers of abstract modern art, Wassily Kandinsky exploited the evocative interrelation between color and form to create an aesthetic experience that engaged the sight, sound, and emotions of the public. As of 1886 he studies law and economy at the Moscow University and successfully completes his doctor's degree in 1893, but he soon changes his career plans and becomes a painter. The talented teachers and students, lively sharing of ideas from various art spheres and related sectors, the very atmosphere impregnated with innovating – surely, such an environment could not but inspire the real master. He returned to Moscow in 1914, after the outbreak of World War I. Kandinsky was unsympathetic to the official theories on art in Communist Moscow, and returned to Germany in 1921. Even as a boy he had an intimate experience with art; the works of his childhood reveal rather specific color combinations, infused by his perception that "each color lives by its mysterious life.". Wassily Kandinsky 2 Artistic periods An early period work "Munich-Schwabing with the Church of St. Ursula" (Kandinsky 1908) Kandinsky's creation of purely abstract work followed a long period of development and maturation of intense theoretical thought based on his personal artistic experiences. Wassily Kandinsky was born in Moscow on December 4, 1866 (December 16 by the Gregorian calendar), to musical parents Lidia Ticheeva and Vasily Silvestrovich Kandinsky… During this time he met art student Gabriele Münter in 1903 and moved in with her before his divorce from his wife was finalized in 1911. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. It is a particularly tidy piece with most elements contained neatly within a large thick circle. (114 x 162.4 cm.) He and Nina had moved to the suburb of Paris in the late 1930s, when Marcel Duchamp had found a little apartment for them. See available prints and multiples, works on paper, and paintings for sale and learn about the … Wassily Kandinsky was a Russian artist whose vibrant, abstract paintings are credited with paving the way for Non-Objective Art. Moskau 1866 - Neuilly-sur-Seine 1944 The Russian painter, graphic artist and art theorist Wassily Kandinsky was born in Moscow on 4 December 1866. But much of his study was self-directed. Now, in the same spirit, he analyzed the supposed effects of the abstract elements of drawing, interpreting a horizontal line, for example, as cold and a vertical line as hot. After leaving the law, Kandinsky headed to Germany and attended art school in Munich from 1897 to 1899. He became a member of the arts section of the Commissariat for Intellectual Progress in 1918, … But two events effected his abrupt change of career in 1896: seeing an exhibition of French Impressionists in Moscow the previous year, especially Claude Monet's Haystacks at Giverny, which was his first experience of nonrepresentational art; and then hearing Wagner's Lohengrin at the Bolshoi Theatre. He was one of the most important 20th-century artists. He graduated with honors, but his ethnographic earned him a fieldwork scholarship that entailed a visit to the Vologda province to study their traditional criminal jurisprudence and religion. Wassily Kandinsky took up the study of art in earnest at age 30, moving to Munich to study drawing and painting. During these years, his work as an art theorist helped him to set up the Munich New Artists' Association. Colour is the keyboard, the eyes are the hammers, the soul is the piano with many strings". Following a disagreement within this group, he and the German painter Franz Marc founded in 1911 an informally organized rival group, which took the name Der Blaue Reiter (“The Blue Rider”), from … Wassily Kandinsky was born in Moscow on December 4, 1866 (December 16 by the Gregorian calendar), to musical parents Lidia Ticheeva and Vasily Silvestrovich Kandinsky, a tea merchant. Wassily Kandinsky (1866 – 1944) was a Russian artist who is most famous for being a pioneer of abstract art and for painting some of the earliest works in the genre including what is known as the First Abstract Watercolour.Art was deeply spiritual for Kandinsky and music was integral to many of his works. Attending a classical grammar school: he learned to play the piano and the cello and took to drawing with a coach. Henri Matisse was a revolutionary and influential artist of the early 20th century, best known for the expressive color and form of his Fauvist style. In his 1910 treatise Concerning the Spiritual In Art, Kandinsky made famous his belief that abstract colors and forms can be used to express the “inner life” of the artist. He began with conventional themes and art forms, but all the while he was forming theories derived from devoted spiritual study and informed by an intense relationship between music and color. We strive for accuracy and fairness. Cubism is an important development in freeing painting from traditional representational depiction. In July 1937, he and other artists were featured in the “Degenerate Art Exhibition” in Munich. Return to Russia. The young Kandinsky drew, wrote poems, and played the piano and the cello. Norwegian painter Edvard Munch is widely known for his iconic pre-Expressionist painting "The Scream" ("The Cry"). View Wassily Kandinsky’s 3,133 artworks on artnet. Summary of Wassily Kandinsky. 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