Minimalism is variously construed either as a precursor to postmodernism, or as a postmodern movement itself. Bob Dylan, Neil Young, Lou Reed, The Doors, the Rolling Stones, and Patti Smith combined popular musical traditions with Modernist verse, adopting literary devices derived from William Blake, Allen Ginsberg, and others. Some say the period ended about 1990, but it is likely too soon to declare this period closed. The moon, and the road are a symbol for the ambition concerning hope, allowing the characters to aim for a dream.  The word "surrealist" was coined by Guillaume Apollinaire and first appeared in the preface to his play Les Mamelles de Tirésias, which was written in 1903 and first performed in 1917. “Modernism, philosophically speaking, is in a sense the ‘‘worship’’ of time and the transient, a kind of deification of time and becoming and all that flows in the temporal order. Gone was the Romantic period that focused on nature and being. Modernism in the arts is a time period identifier, just like Romanticism, age of Enlightenment, Renaissance, etc. Examples include the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Tate Modern in London, and the Centre Pompidou in Paris. An important aspect of modernism is how it relates to tradition through its adoption of techniques like reprise, incorporation, rewriting, recapitulation, revision and parody in new forms. The Modernist Period in poetry occupied the years from shortly after the beginning of the twentieth century through roughly 1965. Modernism's end date is debated to be 1939, 1945, or even 1950.  Many aspects of modernist design still persist within the mainstream of contemporary architecture, though previous dogmatism has given way to a more playful use of decoration, historical quotation, and spatial drama. The themes of William Shakespeare are not the themes of Ben Jonson, and while their world views may overlap they are distinct. Another strong influence at this time was Marxism. Bacon began painting during his early 20s but worked only sporadically until his mid-30s. Most agree that Modernism was over by 1950, but as to when it specifically ended is where the lines get blurry. “The Avant-Garde in Babel. Each of them examined a specific aspect of dance—such as the elements of the human form in motion or the impact of theatrical context—and helped bring about the era of modern dance. Modernism is defined in Latin America by painters Joaquín Torres-García from Uruguay and Rufino Tamayo from Mexico, while the muralist movement with Diego Rivera, David Siqueiros, José Clemente Orozco, Pedro Nel Gómez and Santiago Martínez Delgado, and Symbolist paintings by Frida Kahlo, began a renaissance of the arts for the region, characterized by a freer use of color and an emphasis on political messages. While most were in standard styles, but by inferior artists, the work of Manet attracted tremendous attention, and opened commercial doors to the movement. Ordinary people—many of them his friends—stared wide-eyed from the canvas, vulnerable to the artist's ruthless inspection.". It fostered a period of experimentation in literature, music, dance, visual art, and architecture. Modernist devices also started toIn Britain, a youth subculture emerged calling itself "Modernist". Literary modernism, or modernist literature, originated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in Europe and North America, and is characterized by a self-conscious break with traditional ways of writing, in both poetry and prose fiction writing.Modernism Modernists experimented with literary form and expression, as exemplified by Ezra Pound's maxim to … See also Santiniketan: The Making of a Contextual Modernism and Hanshinkan Modernism, Peter Kalliney suggests that "Modernist concepts, especially aesthetic autonomy, were fundamental to the literature of decolonization in anglophone Africa. Artists realized that Jackson Pollock's process—placing unstretched raw canvas on the floor where it could be attacked from all four sides using artistic and industrial materials; dripping and throwing linear skeins of paint; drawing, staining, and brushing; using imagery and nonimagery—essentially blasted artmaking beyond any prior boundary. 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