Several Rüstsätze could be fitted, although installing these did not change the designation of the aircraft. Pitch control, as on the 109F, was either electro-mechanical (automatic) or manual-electric using a thumb-switch on the throttle lever. Enlarging the existing nose-mounted radiator sufficiently to cool the engine would have created extra weight and drag, negating some of the performance gains afforded by the increased power, so it was decided to move the main radiators to the undersurfaces of the wings immediately outboard of the junction of the wing root and wing panel, just forward of the trailing edges' inner ends, leaving the oil cooler under the nose in a small, streamlined duct. The Bf 109TL received intensive research. U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, Aircraft Division Industry Report, Exhibit I – German Airplane Programs vs Actual Production. Luftfahrt Archiv Hafner, Ludwigsburg. The fourth prototype, V24 VK+AB, W.Nr 5604, flew with the clipped wings but featured a modified, "elbow"-shaped supercharger air-intake, which was eventually adopted for production, and a deeper oil cooler bath beneath the cowling. All of the main pipe connections were colour-coded and grouped in one place, where possible, and electrical equipment plugged into junction boxes mounted on the firewall. The entire weapon could be removed for servicing by removing a leading edge panel. [8][9], Production of the short-lived Bf 109C began in the spring of 1938. By concentrating the loads in the firewall, the structure of the Bf 109 could be made relatively light and uncomplicated. [21] The installation of a fixed "tall" tailwheel on some of the late G-10s and −14s and the K-series helped alleviate the problem to a large extent.[22]. The lowered undercarriage could throw up mud and debris on wet airfields, potentially clogging the radiators. One A-0, marked as 6–15, ran out of fuel and was forced to land behind enemy lines. The 109 remained in production from 1937 through 1945 in many different v… The most recognizable external change was the use of the three-panel Erla-Haube clear-view canopy, which filled the entire canopy length behind the four-panel windscreen unit, which eliminated the older, rear fixed canopy section. The tail section of the aircraft was redesigned as well. Messerschmitt Bf 109. However, it soon became one of the frontrunners in the contest, as the Arado and Focke-Wulf entries, which were intended as "backup" programmes to safeguard against failure of the two favourites, proved to be completely outclassed. Reflecting Messerschmitt's belief in low-weight, low-drag, simple monoplanes, the armament was placed in the fuselage. A large hole was cut through the spar allowing the cannon to be fitted with the ammunition feed forward of the spar, while the breech block projected rearward through the spar. [14] Positive aspects of the He 112 included the wide track and robustness of the undercarriage (this opened outwards from mid wing, as opposed to the 109s which opened from the wing root), considerably better visibility from the cockpit, and a lower wing loading that made for easier landings. … [46] A total of 208 F-1s were built between August 1940 and February 1941 by Messerschmitt Regensburg and the Wiener Neustädter Flugzeugwerke (WNF).[49]. The ASM engine was built with a larger capacity supercharger, and had a higher rated altitude, and correspondingly the top speed of the G-14/AS was 560 km/h (348 mph) at sea level, and 680 km/h (422 mph) at 7.5 km (24,600 ft) altitude. [citation needed]. The new radiator position also had the effect of counterbalancing the extra weight and length of the DB 601, which drove a heavier three-bladed Vereinigte Deutsche Metallwerke (VDM)-made propeller.[14]. The wing profile was the NACA 2R1 14.2 at the root and NACA 2R1 11.35 at the tip,[23] with a thickness to chord ratio of 14.2% at the root and 11.35% at the tip. This tail unit was standardised on G-10s and K-4s. The critical altitude of 6,000 metres was to be reached in no more than 17 minutes, and the fighter was to have an operational ceiling of 10,000 metres. Armament. Caption. In 1935, the first Jumo engines became available, so V2 was completed in October using the 449 kW (600 hp) Jumo 210A engine. The engine cowling was redesigned to be smoother and more rounded. They appeared in films (notably Battle of Britain) playing the role of Bf 109Es. There were two Rüstzustand[citation needed] planned for G-2s: The rack and internal fuel lines for carrying a 300 L (80 US gal) under-fuselage drop-tank were widely used on G-2s, as were the underwing 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon gondolas. This included adding a tail-hook, catapult fittings and increasing the wingspan to 11.08 m (36.35 ft). [60], Total Bf 109 production was 33,984 units;[2] wartime production (September 1939 to May 1945) was 30,573 units. Over 12,000 examples were built well into 1944 although contradictory factory and RLM records do not allow an exact tally. The fuselage was cleaned up and the engine cowling modified to … However, possibly due to the introduction of the Hurricane and Spitfire, each with eight 7.7 mm (.303 in) machine guns, experiments were carried out with a third machine gun firing through the propeller shaft. It was originally intended that the wheel wells would incorporate small doors to cover the outer portion of the wheels when retracted. For this reason, on later Bf 109 F, and K models, the two coolant radiators were equipped with a cut-off system. It was highly automatic and thus easy to fly. 10 von 01.01.1939 (Deliveries up to 31.12.1938), RLM Lieferplan Nr. [80], Some versions of the G-6 and later Gs had a taller, wood-structure tail unit and redesigned rudder with an inset rudder balance protruding forward into the fin which improved stability at high speeds. Slightly thicker wing skins and reinforced spars dealt with the wing problems. [37], Originally the aircraft was designated as Bf 109 by the RLM, since the design was submitted by the Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (literally "Bavarian Aircraft Works", meaning "Bavarian Aircraft Factory"; sometimes abbreviated B.F.W.,[38] akin to BMW) during 1935. The air group for the carrier was settled on Messerschmitt Bf 109T fighters and Ju 87C dive bombers. Although it was later supplemented by the Focke-Wulf Fw 190, the Bf 109 nevertheless served from the beginning to the very end of the war in multiple roles and variants. A Bf 109 in the skies of Sicily. The Heinkel He 112, based on a scaled-down Blitz, was the favourite of the Luftwaffe leaders. It was called the Me 109 by Allied aircrew and some German aces, even though this was not the official German designation.[5]. A total of 561 of all E-4 versions were built,[13] including 496 E-4s built as such: 250 E-4, 211 E-4/B, 15 E-4/N and 20 E-4/BN. Green 1980, pp. Previous Emil subtypes were progressively retrofitted with the necessary fittings for carrying a drop tank from October 1940. Cross and Scarborough 1976, pp. The "F" model was planned to include structural and aerodynamic changes and a higher performance powerplant, the 1350 horsepower DB 601E. Faction. It was known as E-4/B (DB 601Aa engine) and E-4/BN (DB 601N engine). More aerial kills were made with the Bf 109 than any other aircraft of World War II. The DB 605 D-2 was a development of this using the larger DB 603 supercharger. [83] Top speed was 568 km/h (353 mph) at sea level, and 665 km/h (413 mph) at 5 km (16,400 ft) altitude. According to RLM documentation 22 aircraft were ordered and delivered with V4 as the A-series prototype. British reports on captured DB 601 series engines describe "a double-walled cannon tube housing" as part of the, Galland also flew another F-2/U1 in which the MG 17s above the engine were replaced by 13 mm MG 131s, World speed records and other aviation records were and still are set by the. A quote from „Messerschmitt Bf 109 in action, Part 2“, Page 52, squadron/signal publications: „The K-4 was armed with [two 13 mm cowl guns and] the deadly 30 mm cannon firing through the spinner. ", http://www.wwiiaircraftperformance.org/me109/me109g6-combat-emergency.jpg, Nazi fighter: The Messerschmitt Me 109: A German Design Which Just Missed Being a Success, National Museum of the United States Air Force, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (BFW) and Messerschmitt, Reich Air Ministry (RLM) aircraft designations, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Messerschmitt_Bf_109&oldid=1001893733, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2013, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 2 × 20 mm MG 151/20 underwing cannon pods with 135 rpg (optional kit—. [79] One hundred and five Bf 109 pilots were each credited with the destruction of 100 or more enemy aircraft. It first flew in May 1935 and was used by Luftwaffe, Hungarian Air Force, National Republican Air Force, and Royal Romanian Air Force. Four variants of this aircraft were proposed. It was one of the most advanced fighters when it first appeared, with an all-metal monocoque … The DB 601 E ran on standard 87 octane "B-4" aviation fuel, despite its increased performance; while the earlier DB 601 N required 100 octane "C-3" fuel. In July 1937, not long after the public debut of the new fighter, three Bf 109Bs took part in the Flugmeeting airshow in Zürich under the command of Major Seidemann. [32], The first version of the 109 to have wing guns was the C-1, which had one MG 17 in each wing. The radio equipment was the FuG 16ZY with the relocated main swept-forward radio antenna under the port wing from the G-10 being carried through as the standard for the K-series airframes. Unlike the Rüstsatz field-kits, these modifications were permanent. We lost a lot of pilots in takeoffs. In the proposed K-6 the armament would have been two 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 above the engine, along with a 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 Motorkanone and an internally mounted MK 108 in each wing, with 45 rpg. [51] The maximum speed of the F-1 and F-2 was 615 km/h (382 mph) at rated altitude. The DB/DC engine had an adjusting screw allowing the engine to use either B4 + MW 50 Methanol Water injection equipment or C3 fuel (DB 605 DB) or C3 fuel with or without MW 50 (DB 605 DC). 34. The new shell required modifications to the MG FF's mechanism due to the different recoil characteristics, hence the MG FF/M designation. Exhibit I – German Airplane Programs vs Actual Production. To incorporate these the outer wheel bays were squared off. An instructor's cockpit was added behind the original cockpit and both were covered by an elongated, glazed canopy. Soviet aviators nicknamed the Bf 109 "the skinny one" (худо́й, khudoy), for its sleek appearance compared, for example, to the more robust Fw 190. 21 rockets (as on the Gustav models) could be carried after minimal preparation; the latter two were rarely used by Bf 109 units at this stage of the war, although III./JG 26 were almost completely equipped with K-4s which were fitted with R IV: ...apparently all of the K-4s supplied to III./JG 26 were also equipped with 20 mm-guns in the hated underwing tubs. [50] The first F-4s reached frontline units in June 1941. Bf 109G – "Gustav"), based on the German spelling alphabet of World War II, a practice that was also used for other German aircraft designs. The introduction of the WGr. Armour weight was increased to 90 kg (200 lb). [78] If shot down, the Luftwaffe pilots might land or parachute to friendly territory and return to fight again. These changes resulted in the fitting of teardrop-shaped fairings to the upper wing surface above the wheel-wells to accommodate the upper part of the mainwheels. If you took off too fast it would turn [roll] ninety degrees away. Armament was initially planned to be just two cowl-mounted 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns. U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, Aircraft Division Industry Report. Later in the war, when Allied victories began to bring the fight closer, and then in German territory, bombing raids supplied plenty of targets for the Luftwaffe. The K-14 was to be powered by the two-stage supercharged DB 605L engine, using a four-bladed propeller. It was a remarkable weapon in that two or three hits were usually sufficient to ensure a kill even on a heavy bomber. RLM Flugzeugbeschaffungs-Programm Nr. picture and history of the Bf-109 is an F-2/TROP at the South African National Museum of Military History what IMHO seems to indicate that at least the designation F-2/Trop does exist and is widely used (maybe incorrectly?). Early production G-10 may have had two data plates (one stamped G-14) as these airframes were originally intended for G-14 assembly but were diverted to G-10 assembly. Because most fighter pilots of the Luftwaffe were used to biplanes with open cockpits, low wing loading, light g-forces and easy handling like the Heinkel He 51, they were very critical of the Bf 109 at first. A less obvious difference was the omission of the boundary layer bypass outlets, which had been a feature of the F-series, on the upper radiator flaps.[59][60]. Main Messerschmitt Bf 109 F: All Models. By tucking the radiators more tightly into the wings, the designers reduced drag and improved lift. Beaman, John R. Jr. and Jerry L. Campbell. [100] The standard Revi 16C reflector sight was fitted, which was slated to be replaced by the EZ 42 Gyro gunsight, although this never happened. The creation of machines like the Bf109 was part of this rearmament. Some were still in service in the late 1960s. It was also supplied to several of Germany's allies, including Italy, Finland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Slovakia. The following variants of the G-10 were produced: Approximately 2,600 G-10s were produced from October 1944 until the war's end. The fuselage aft of the canopy remained essentially unchanged in its externals. [11], A total of 58 Bf 109Cs of all versions were built by Messerschmitt.[8][9]. […] … [33][36], Some of the projected 109K-series models, such as the K-6, were designed to carry 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 cannons in the wings. The D-3 was similar to the C-3 but with two 20 mm MG FFs in the wings. [109] [Notes 6]. XIV and Hawker Tempest Mk. The basic mock-up was completed by May, and a more detailed design mock-up was ready by January 1935. Messerschmitt Bf 109 F,G, & K Series by Jochen Prien, Peter Rodeike. Field kits known as Rüstsätze were also available for the G-series but those did not change the aircraft title. Batches of both E-1 and E-3 variants were shipped to Spain for evaluation, and first saw combat during the final phases of the Spanish Civil War. It speeded up very fast, if you dived a little. Messerschmitt provided skilled technicians, raw materials, and tools and the SS provided prisoners, in a deal that proved highly profitable for both parties. [12][13], Only very limited numbers of the E-2 variant were built, for which the V20 prototype served as basis. Both airframes were to be powered by the DB605 engine. Bf 109H-2 and H-5 developments were also planned, but the entire H-series was scrapped because of wing flutter problems. The Bf 109 remained comparable to opposing fighters until the end of the war but the deteriorating quality of the thousands of novice Luftwaffe pilots pressed into service by this stage of the war meant the 109's strengths were of little value against the numerous and well-trained Allied fighter pilots. After the success of the demonstration at the meeting of Zürich in 1937, Udet was receptive to the idea of developing an export version of the Bf 109 but with a different engine than the DB 601. The cockpit canopy was also revised to an easier-to-produce, "squared-off" design, which also helped improve the pilot's field of view. In late March 1933 the RLM published the tactical requirements for a single-seat fighter in the document L.A. The fuselage was to come from the Bf 109H/BV 155B high-altitude fighter (with a new nose and tail section), the wing was from the Me 409 project and the tricycle undercarriage came from the Me 309. Taylor, John W.R. "Messerschmitt Bf 109". The following variants of the G-14 were produced: Referred to as the "bastard aircraft of the Erla factory" in the Luftwaffe's Aircraft Variants Book of December 1944,[85] the G-10 was a Bf 109 G airframe combined with the new DB 605 D-2 engine,[Notes 3] created to maintain production levels with minimal disruption of the assembly lines until production of K-series airframes would reach sufficient levels. The C-3 was planned with 20 mm MG FF cannons replacing the two MG 17s in the wings, but it is not known how many C-3s (if any) were built or converted. The total weight, including ammunition, was 215 kg. [116], Several of the S-199s were sold to Israel, forming the basis of the fledgeling Israeli Air Force.[117]. [8] Power was to be provided by the new Junkers Jumo 210 engine of about 522 kW (700 hp). The G-2, which started production in May 1942, lacked the cabin pressurization and GM-1 installation. From the spring of 1943, the G-series saw the appearance of bulges in the cowling when the 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 were replaced with 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 machine guns (G-5 onwards) due to the latter's much larger breechblock, and on the wings (due to larger tyres), leading to the Bf 109 G-6's nickname "Die Beule" ("The Bulge"). 1944. Some E-4 and later models received a further improved 1,175 PS (1,159 hp, 864 kW) DB601N high-altitude engine; known as the E-4/N; owing to priority being given to equipping Bf 110s with this engine, one fighter gruppe was converted to this version, starting in July 1940. [nb 2] Messerschmitt received two of these engines and adapted the engine mounts of V1 to take the V-12 engine upright. The unit was renamed as 11./JG 11 as of 30 November 1943[34] and the Bf 109Ts remained in operation until the summer of 1944, after which some were used in training units in Germany. The Messerschmitt company received a contract from RLM/LC on 13 June 1938 to fit the P&W Twin Wasp on the Bf 109 V21 (21st prototype) Werknummer 1770 (D-IFKQ). They were also concerned about the high wing loading.[13]. When the Bf 109 was designed in 1934, by a team led by Willy Messerschmitt and Robert Lusser, its primary role was that of a high-speed, short range interceptor. [65][66][67][68], After the August 1943 Regensburg raid, some Bf 109 production was relocated to Gusen concentration camp in Austria,[69][70] where the average prisoner's life expectancy was six months. Messerschmitt, however, soon regained the lead when, on 26 April 1939, Flugkapitän Fritz Wendel, flying the Me 209 V1, set a new record of 755.14 km/h (469.22 mph). The undercarriage legs were altered so that the wheel's vertical axis was nearly upright rather than being parallel with the oleo leg. The later G series (G-5 through G-14) was produced in a multitude of variants, with uprated armament and provision for kits of packaged, generally factory-installed parts known as Umrüst-Bausätze (usually contracted to Umbau) and adding a "/U" suffix to the aircraft designation when installed. The E-1 was also fitted with the Reflexvisier "Revi" gunsight. Luftwaffe Messerschmitt BF109B BF109E BF109F BF109G BF109G-2 BF109H BF109K BF110C BF110E BF110G Me-410 Me-309 Me-163 Me-262A-1a Me-262A-2a Me-262B Me-264 1101 Me-321 Me-323 Photos & Drawings Aircraft Handbook Bf 109K-4 [50] In the early years of the war, the Bf 109 was the only single-engined fighter operated by the Luftwaffe, until the appearance of the Fw 190. Georg Genth's regular aircraft was a G-10, but on occasion he flew a K-4. And in the acrobatics manoeuver, you could spin with the 109, and go very easy out of the spin. [78], During the course of 1943, a number of improvements were gradually introduced. The following variants of the G-1 and G-2 were produced: In September 1942, the G-4 appeared; this version was identical to the G-2 in all aspects, including performance, except for being fitted with the FuG 16 VHF radio set, which provided much clearer radio transmissions and had three-times the range of the earlier HF sets. Elisabeth Boeckl-Klamper, Thomas Mang, Wolfgang Neugebauer: Peter Broucek "Die österreichische Identität im Widerstand 1938–1945" (2008), p 163. The D-2 was an experimental version with an engine-mounted machine gun, but as previously tried, this installation failed. The Bf 109 first saw operational service during the Spanish Civil War and was still in service at the dawn of the jet age at the end of World War II, during which time it was the backbone of the Luftwaffe's fighter force. It was powered by a liquid-cooled, inverted-V12 aero engine. The DB 605D was a one-off prototype engine developed from the DB 605A using internal modifications to raise its altitude rating. Series production started in August 1944 with the K-4 model, due to changes in the design and delays with the new DB 605D powerplant. It is notable as the first fighter obtained by the Israeli Air Force, and used during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. To compensate for this, the Bf 109 included advanced high-lift devices on the wings, including automatically opening leading edge slats, and fairly large camber-changing flaps on the trailing edge. [43], Deliveries began in mid-October 1944 and 534 examples had been delivered by the Messerschmitt A.G., Regensburg by the end of November and 856 by the end of the year. Compared with the Bf 109, it was also cheaper. A special high-altitude variant, the F-4/Z featuring GM-1 boost, was also built with a production run of 544 in the first quarter of 1942 and saw extensive use. The wing tips were akin to that of the Bf 109E. The Messerschmitt Bf 109 is one of the few fighters ever to be developed from a light-plane design. The pilot was protected by armour-plate from the back, and the fuel tank was also behind armour. The highest-scoring, Erich Hartmann, was credited with 352 victories. Despite regulations by the RLM, wartime documents from Messerschmitt AG, RLM and Luftwaffe loss and strength reports continued to use both designations, sometimes even on the same page.[39]. [73] Forced labor at Buchenwald produced approximately 300 Bf 109 fuselages, tail sections, and wings before the end of the war. Because the radiators were mounted near the trailing edge of the wing, coinciding with the increased speed of the airflow accelerating around the wing camber, cooling was more effective than that of the Jumo engined 109s, albeit at the cost of extra ducting and piping, which was vulnerable to damage. Shortly afterwards it was transferred to E-Stelle Travemünde, where its civil registration was replaced by TK+HM code. [31] At the end of 1941 the unit was ordered to return their aircraft to Germany and received E-3s as replacements. Mersu, although F-2s were fitted with sand filters in the underside operace … Messerschmitt Bf 109T was outdated... As an option saksan sotatalous lift strut on either side of the Bf 109 F-4 – Britische.... August 1939 Luft ) T.2109 Bf 109 was developed by German designers Willy Messerschmitt and Rober Lusser during the big. Of 100 or more enemy aircraft the front improved aerodynamics were used by DB605! Debris on wet airfields, potentially clogging the radiators more tightly into the new Me... Gm-1 installation V-12 engine upright emergency, the RLM received news that the British Supermarine Spitfire been! The ground handling HA-1109 and HA-1112 Buchons ended in 1958. [ 110 ] kW! 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